Unit-1: Overview of System Analysis and Design

System Analysis and Design (SA&D) is a systematic approach to improve the design and organization of a system or process. The goal of SA&D is to optimize the functioning of a system, enhance its efficiency and effectiveness, and meet the needs of stakeholders. It involves several phases, including:

  1. Requirements gathering and analysis
  2. System design
  3. Implementation and testing
  4. Maintenance and modification.

SA&D involves interdisciplinary teams, including business analysts, software engineers, and end-users, to ensure that the resulting system meets the requirements and goals of the organization.

 Systems Development Life Cycle

 System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a structured and phased approach to the development of a software system. It defines the steps involved in the design, development, deployment, and maintenance of a software system. The typical phases of SDLC are:

  1. Requirements Gathering and Analysis
  2. System Design
  3. Implementation or Coding
  4. Testing
  5. Deployment
  6. Maintenance and Revision.

Each phase of the SDLC has specific goals and outcomes, and it is important to complete each phase before moving on to the next. The SDLC helps to ensure that a software system is developed in a controlled and organized manner, and that all necessary steps are taken to ensure the system meets the requirements and expectations of the stakeholders.

concept and Models

System Analysis and Design (SA&D) concepts and models provide a framework for understanding and improving the design and organization of a system. The key concepts of SA&D include:

  1. System: a set of components that interact to achieve a specific goal or set of goals
  2. Requirements: the needs and expectations of the stakeholders for a system
  3. Stakeholders: the individuals or groups who are affected by the system or who have an interest in it

Models in SA&D help to describe, analyze, and communicate the components and interactions of a system. Some commonly used models in SA&D include:

  1. Data Flow Diagram (DFD)
  2. Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD)
  3. Object-Oriented Modeling (OOM)
  4. Unified Modeling Language (UML)
  5. Use Case Modeling.

These models help to define the structure, behavior, and data of a system and to understand how it will meet the requirements of the stakeholders. By using these concepts and models, organizations can improve the design and organization of their systems, and enhance their efficiency, effectiveness, and overall performance

requirements determination

Requirements determination is the process of identifying and defining the needs and expectations of stakeholders for a new or modified system. It involves understanding the problem to be solved, the goals to be achieved, and the constraints to be considered in the solution. This process is critical in system analysis and design as it ensures that the resulting system meets the needs of the stakeholders and provides value. Requirements determination typically includes activities such as stakeholder interviews, requirement gathering, documentation, and validation.

Requirements determination is the process of identifying and defining the needs and expectations of stakeholders in a system to be developed. It involves:

  1. Gathering information from stakeholders through interviews, surveys, focus groups, etc.
  2. Analyzing the information to determine the functional and non-functional requirements for the system.
  3. Validating and prioritizing the requirements with stakeholders to ensure that the system being developed meets their needs.
  4. Documenting the requirements in a clear and concise manner for reference during the design and development process.

The outcome of the requirements determination process is a comprehensive list of requirements that will guide the rest of the system analysis and design process

Logical Design:

Logical design is the process of creating a conceptual representation of a system, database, or software application. It defines the data structures, data relationships, and the overall flow of information and operations within the system. This design does not include any specific technology or hardware requirements and focuses on the underlying concepts and structures that are necessary for the system to function.

The purpose of logical design is to ensure that the system meets the business requirements and provides a clear understanding of how data will be stored, processed, and retrieved. This design is critical for ensuring that the system is scalable, flexible, and maintainable, and that it provides the desired functionality.

Physical Design:

Physical design is the process of translating the logical design into a physical representation of the system. It involves determining the hardware and software requirements, database configurations, and other physical components that are necessary to implement the system. Physical design also includes the creation of a detailed diagram of the system architecture and the configuration of the servers, network components, and storage devices.

The purpose of physical design is to ensure that the system can be deployed in a reliable and efficient manner, with appropriate consideration given to security, performance, and availability. Physical design must also take into account the specific needs of the organization and the constraints of the environment in which the system will be deployed.

Test Planning:

Test planning is the process of creating a comprehensive plan for testing a system, database, or software application. This includes the creation of a testing schedule, the definition of test cases, the selection of test data, and the development of test scripts. Test planning is critical for ensuring that the system meets the required quality standards and performs as expected in real-world situations.

The purpose of test planning is to minimize the risk of defects and ensure that the system is reliable and functional. Test planning must take into account the specific requirements of the organization, the criticality of the system, and the complexity of the design.


Implementation is the process of installing and configuring the system, database, or software application. This includes the deployment of hardware, the installation of software, and the configuration of the various components. Implementation is critical for ensuring that the system is up and running and that it meets the requirements of the organization.

The purpose of implementation is to deliver the system to the end-users, and to provide training and support to ensure that they are able to effectively use the system. Implementation must also include the creation of documentation, the preparation of user manuals, and the establishment of procedures for ongoing maintenance and support.


Planning is the process of defining goals and determining how to achieve those goals. It involves creating a roadmap for the future, including setting goals and objectives, developing strategies and tactics, identifying resources needed, and estimating timelines. The purpose of planning is to ensure that all efforts are focused on achieving specific, measurable outcomes.

Performance Evaluation:

Performance evaluation is the process of assessing an individual’s or an organization’s performance in comparison to specific standards. This can include measuring output, assessing outcomes, and evaluating the achievement of goals and objectives. Performance evaluation helps organizations understand where they are performing well and where there is room for improvement, allowing them to make informed decisions about resource allocation and future strategies.


Communication is the exchange of information, ideas, and thoughts between individuals or groups. Effective communication requires clear and concise messaging, active listening, and an understanding of the audience and context. Good communication skills are essential in both personal and professional settings, and can help build trust, resolve conflicts, and promote understanding.


Interviewing is a process used to gather information from individuals through a series of questions. Interviews can be used for a variety of purposes, including selection and recruitment, performance evaluation, and research. Effective interviewing requires good communication skills, a clear understanding of the purpose of the interview, and the ability to ask relevant and meaningful questions.

Presentation Skills:

Presentation skills refer to the ability to effectively communicate information and ideas to an audience through verbal and nonverbal cues. This includes the use of visual aids, body language, tone of voice, and storytelling techniques. Good presentation skills help build credibility, engage the audience, and communicate complex ideas in an understandable and memorable way.

Group Dynamics:

Group dynamics refers to the processes and behaviors that occur within a group of people. This includes how individuals interact with one another, how they make decisions, and how they work together to achieve common goals. Understanding group dynamics is important for building effective teams, promoting collaboration, and resolving conflicts.

Risk and Feasibility Analysis:

Risk and feasibility analysis is the process of evaluating the likelihood and impact of potential risks and determining the feasibility of a project or decision. This includes identifying potential risks, assessing the likelihood of each risk occurring, and developing strategies to mitigate those risks. Feasibility analysis involves evaluating the resources, time, and other constraints needed to successfully implement a project or decision, and determining whether it is possible to do so given those constraints

Group-Based Approaches:

Group-based approaches refer to methodologies in which individuals are grouped together based on common characteristics or goals to address a particular problem. The goal of these approaches is to leverage the collective strengths and perspectives of individuals in the group to arrive at solutions or make decisions that are more effective and efficient than if individuals worked alone. Examples of group-based approaches include brainstorming, group decision-making, and focus groups.

Joint Application Design (JAD):

JAD is a facilitated group-based approach used to gather requirements and design solutions for information systems. JAD brings together stakeholders, including users, managers, and technical experts, to jointly define the requirements for a system and to design solutions that meet those requirements. The goal of JAD is to ensure that all stakeholders have a clear understanding of the problem being addressed and to facilitate the development of a solution that meets the needs of all stakeholders. JAD typically involves a series of facilitated sessions, during which participants work together to identify requirements, prioritize solutions, and design the system. JAD can be used to develop new systems or to improve existing ones

Structure Walkthroughs:

A structure walkthrough is a process where a team of developers, stakeholders, and subject matter experts inspect and validate a system design, software architecture, or code to identify potential flaws, drawbacks, or issues. It aims to improve the quality of the design and code, find problems early, and make sure the product meets the stakeholders’ requirements.

Design and Code Reviews:

Design and code review is a formal or informal process where code and design artifacts are evaluated by peers or experienced developers to ensure that the implementation adheres to coding standards, design patterns, and best practices. It aims to improve the quality of the code and prevent errors, reduce maintenance costs, and enhance the maintainability and readability of the code.


Prototyping is the process of creating a preliminary version of a product to test its viability, usability, and feasibility. It allows stakeholders to experiment with different design options and validate the product’s functionality before investing time and resources into the development of a full-fledged solution. Prototyping can be done with paper sketches, wireframes, or functional prototypes, depending on the product’s complexity and the desired level of detail.

Database Design:

Database design is the process of creating a conceptual and logical model of a database that defines the relationships and dependencies between data entities, attributes, and data constraints. The goal of database design is to ensure that the database is efficient, reliable, and flexible enough to accommodate changes to the data requirements over time.

Software Quality Metrics:

Software quality metrics are measurements that help assess the quality of a software system or product, including its reliability, performance, maintainability, and usability. The selection of metrics depends on the product’s requirements and the stakeholders’ goals, but some common metrics include bug density, test coverage, response time, and number of code defects.

Software Package Evaluation and Acquisition:

Software package evaluation and acquisition are processes that involve selecting, evaluating, and acquiring software packages or components that meet the organization’s requirements. The evaluation process typically involves a comparison of different software packages based on factors such as functionality, compatibility, cost, support, and vendor reputation. The acquisition process involves negotiating and securing the license agreement and making the payment for the software package.

Application Categories:

Application categories refer to the types of software applications that are designed to perform specific tasks or functions. Some common application categories include business, productivity, gaming, multimedia, and educational applications. Each category has its own set of features, functionalities, and requirements, and the selection of an application depends on the user’s needs and preferences.