UNIT-2: Types of communication-oral communication

Meaning of oral communication

Oral communication implies communication through mouth. It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication. Oral communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required. Face to face communication (meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build a rapport and trust.

Nature of oral communication

Nature of oral communication is defined by several characteristics, including:

  1. Immediacy: Oral communication is immediate and real-time, allowing for quick exchange of information and feedback. This makes it a useful tool for problem-solving and decision-making in situations where time is of the essence.
  2. Interactivity: Oral communication is interactive, allowing for two-way exchange of information between the speaker and the listener. This enables both parties to clarify misunderstandings and engage in active discussion.
  3. Verbal and Nonverbal: Oral communication is a combination of verbal and nonverbal cues, including tone of voice, gestures, facial expressions, and body language. These nonverbal cues often convey emotions and emphasis, adding depth and context to the spoken words.
  4. Context-Dependent: Oral communication is context-dependent and is shaped by the environment in which it takes place. The tone and content of the communication may vary depending on the setting, audience, and purpose of the interaction.
  5. Adaptability: Oral communication is adaptable and flexible, allowing for changes in the flow of the conversation based on the needs of the speakers and the context of the interaction.

Principle of effective oral communication

Before presenting something, there should be proper planning regarding the audience, topics to be delivered, timing and other factors: So, a person must be well-prepared to deliver his speech.

Clear pronunciation
To make oral messages meaningful to receivers, words should be clearly and correctly pronounced. There should not be any lack of clarity, otherwise, the communication would be a confusing one.

Effective oral communication desires that a message should be brief. If the sender took a long time for talking, his message may not get the attention of the receiver.

Precision is needed to make oral communication effective. There should not be any confusing words rather message to be delivered should be specific so that there is no misunderstanding.

Natural voice
Any sort of unnatural voice may distort the message. Natural voice can do a lot to make oral communication effective.

Logical sequence
Ideas should be organized in a sequential way to make the message communicative and attractive. Unorganized ideas do not provide clear sense while a logical sequence of ideas gives clear sense.

Suitable words
Words have different meanings to different people in different situations in oral communication, a speaker should use the common, simple and familiar words so that receiver can react to the message without any problem.

Courtesy costs nothing but can earn many things. So, a speaker should be courteous while addressing listeners. It helps create a good impression in the mind of listeners regarding the speaker.

Attractive presentation
It is another principle to make oral communication effective. A speaker should deliver his speech in a very nice and sweet language so that receiver is attracted to take part in the communication.

Avoiding Emotions
Speaker must control his emotions to make oral communication effective. Too much emotion will take the speaker away from the main subject.

The speaker must be knowledgeable regarding the portion of the speech where he should give emphasis. Giving emphasis on respective points will help draw the attention of the audience.

Controlling Gesticulation
Speaker at many occasions, consciously or unconsciously, gesticulates for expressing his ideas or thoughts. This is a habit and should be avoided. Otherwise, application of such habit may lead to % disinterest of the audience.

Media of oral communication

Face to face conversation

Conversation means the informal discussion among the people. When one person discusses his views, opinion to another person and exchanges their views in the presence of both then it is called face to face conversation. It also includes the face-to-face discussion on a particular issue. In this method, both the information receiver and sender can exchange their views freely and fairly.

So, face-to-face conversation is an informal discussion through spoken language and words on a particular issue among the people to exchange their views freely and fairly weighs each other.

Advantages of face-to-face conversation:

  1. Responses immediately: When people communicate each other in person, they can get a response immediately without misunderstanding. During the conversation, people can not only hear a response from others, also see how they are feeling; people can guest what will take place next, how the conversation is about, which is very important to have a successful talk.
  2. Express of feelings: Using face-to-face communication helps people express their feelings, ideas much better. Instead of using words only when people choose letters, emails or phone for communication, people can use eye contact, verbal language in order to show their opinions. Scientists show that more than seventy percent people use body or verbal language in communicating; thus, it’s very important for people use actions to express views.
  3. Suitable for respect: Face-to-face communication enjoys yet another distracts advantage, the message being communicated also gets the assistance of facial expressions and gestures.
  4. Suitable for discussion: Face-to-face communication is particularly suitable for discussion, for there is immediate feedback from the listener. Face-to-face communication provides the speaker with a much better opportunity for adjustment. A twist of the lips, a frown on the forehead, a contraction of the facial muscles point out that the message is not welcomed, then changes of tone or sympathetically looking is to be needed. These adjustments are possible only in face-to-face communication.
  5. Conversation to learn: We learn a great deal via conversation, including conversations with ourselves. We learn highly valuable life lessons.
  6. Conversation to coordinate: Coordinating our action in ways that are mutually beneficial. Anytime we negotiate one favor for another, we use conversation to reach an agreement to transact.
  7. Collaborate: Coordination of action assumes relatively clear goals, but many times social interaction involves the negotiation of goals. Conversation is a requisite for agreeing on goals, as well as for agreeing upon and coordinating our actions.

Disadvantages of face-to-face conversation

The limitations of face-to-face communication are given below:

  1. Difficult to practice in a large-sized organization: Face-to-face communication is extremely difficult to practice in large-sized organizations, particularly if their various units or departments are situated at different places.
  2. Not effective in large gatherings: It is very difficult to get a message across to large gatherings. Even though the speaker is addressing them face-to-face, the vital personal touch is missing. In the absence of a satisfactory feedback, his speech lapse into a monologue.
  3. Ineffective if the listener is not attentive: A limitation which the face-to-face communication shares with oral communication is that its effectiveness is closely linked with the listener’s attentiveness. Since human beings can listen to grasp the message faster than the speed at which they are delivered, they will easily get delivered thus making communication ineffective.


teleconference is a telephone meeting among two or more participants involving technology more sophisticated than a simple two-way phone connection. At its simplest, a teleconference can be an audio conference with one or both ends of the conference sharing a speaker phone.

Advantages of Teleconferencing

1. Saves Time – The most important advantage of teleconferencing is time-saving. With teleconferencing, it is possible to hold meetings on a very short notice. In addition, there is no time spent traveling to the venue of a meeting as all meetings are held through machines or Internet. Reduced mileage translates to thousands of hours of travel saved every year. Teleconferencing also encourages punctuality as meetings are scheduled and done at fixed time frames.

2. Save on Travel Expenses – In addition to time, travel costs can be quite significant when added up over a long period. Most companies that have a global reach incur massive costs associated with the travel ever year. Teleconferencing, however, removes the need to travel often and thus saves huge company resources. Attend meeting thousands of miles away is now faster and less cumbersome.

3. Efficient Record Keeping – One of the main teleconferencing advantages is efficient meeting recording keeping. Computing devices are able to record, keep logs and track every detail of a particular online meeting without needing a lot of monitoring. This makes teleconferencing facilities among the best tools for capturing and storing important meeting data. Teleconferencing also makes it very easy to retrieve this data in the future and make references whenever necessary.

4. Cut Conference Costs – There are indeed many logistical costs associated with holding a conference. Hiring equipment, acquiring a venue, buying food and refreshment are just some of the normal costs associated with any meeting. Teleconferencing removes all these costs as no such arrangements need to be made. The flexibility of teleconferencing also ensures that meetings are held as often as possible with no extra costs being incurred.

5. Encourage Productivity – The fifth teleconferencing advantage is that teleconferencing ensures that workers at various hierarchies in the company structure are in constant communication. This translates to effective information-sharing and prompt actions. Such recurrent engagement is a motivational factor that results turns out increased productivity. Teleconferencing also makes multi-branch management easier as the proximity of every department of a company is optimized.

6. Reliability – Teleconferencing is one of the most reliable ways of holding meetings. This reliability has increased exponentially over the years due to advancement in technology. Teleconferencing channels are today much more stable and communication challenges are almost non-existent. It is also a very secure mode of communication where the safety of data as well as privacy is guaranteed.

Disadvantages of Teleconferencing

1. Prone to Technical Challenges – The main difference between machines and humans is that machines are prone to wear and tear. Technical challenges can thus hit teleconferencing systems at any time. This can lead to time wastage and other inconveniences. Most technological systems also come with a learning curve. Lack of know-how can hinder a person from effective utilization of teleconferencing facilities.

2. Less Effective Nonverbal Communication – When compared to an actual meeting, teleconferencing is a less effective mode of business communication. This is because important nonverbal aspects of business communication like body language and human contact are disregarded. Nonverbal cues are very crucial to holistic communication. The lack of such cues makes it impossible to pick important signals that could lead to a more productive interaction.

3. Space Limitations – The fact that teleconferencing occurs on a screen means that a lot of information is disregarded due to limited space. It is, for instance, nearly impossible to deliver all graphical data effectively even when holding a live online meeting. Even with a big screen, simultaneous actions are not possible in the same way they are at an actual meeting. Consequently, some information is lost or not effectively covered.

4. Discourages Team Dynamics – Another teleconferencing disadvantage is that teleconferencing lacks the dynamism of a real conference where participants are able to have a shared engagement and raise or respond to issues instantaneously. This means that it is often difficult to effectively interject or share ideas as they arise. The lack of dynamism ultimately leads to few people taking control of meetings at the expense of other people.

5. Eliminate Informal Interactions – The common pre-meeting and post-meeting conversations are often very important in setting the stage for the day’s agenda and even future meeting agendas. Such informal engagements are also where some key ideas arise concerning important matters like policy and planning. With the lack of such small talk, teleconferencing can be seen as a rigid and non-progressive mode of conferencing.

6. Affect Professionalism – The fact that machines are the main intermediary between the different parties involved in the meeting,which can affect professionalism. This is because participants are often forced to multitask. This multitasking can shift the focus of participants to other issues that are unrelated and not beneficial to the meeting.

Press conference

A press conference is an event organized to officially distribute information and answer questions from the media. Press conferences are also announced in response to specific public relations issues.

Corporate press conferences are generally led by the company’s executive management or a press liaison or communications officer. Given limited resources, particularly during a time of quarterly or annual earnings, it may be difficult to attract major media attention unless a company has a truly unique or newsworthy announcement to share.

Press conferences are held by corporations and other businesses, politicians, and other government officials.

Why Hold a Press Conference?

There are many reasons why companies choose to hold press conferences. They may be called to do any of the following:

  • Respond to earnings, other news, and/or controversies.
  • Announce the departure or addition of a new executive.
  • Unveil a new production facility.
  • Announce the release of a new product.

Of course, these are just some of the instances when a company may call a conference. In some cases, companies may time their press conferences before any news breaks.


A demonstration in oral communication refers to the use of practical examples, visual aids, or other forms of physical evidence to illustrate a point or concept. Demonstrations are often used in educational or training settings to enhance understanding and facilitate learning.

Here are some benefits of using demonstrations in oral communication:

  1. Clarity: Demonstrations can help clarify complex concepts and ideas, making them easier to understand for the audience. By providing a concrete and tangible example, the speaker can help the listener grasp the concept more effectively.
  2. Engagement: Demonstrations can help engage the audience and keep their attention focused on the topic at hand. This is particularly important in longer presentations or lectures where maintaining attention can be a challenge.
  3. Reinforcement: Demonstrations can reinforce the main points of the oral communication and help the audience retain the information better. This can be especially helpful in training or educational settings where the information needs to be retained and applied later.
  4. Interactivity: Demonstrations can encourage interaction and participation from the audience, making the communication process more dynamic and engaging. This can help foster a sense of community and facilitate learning.
  5. Evidence: Demonstrations can provide evidence to support the speaker’s argument or position, making the communication more credible and persuasive.

In conclusion, demonstrations are a powerful tool in oral communication and can greatly enhance the effectiveness of the communication process. Whether in a classroom, training session, or professional setting, the use of demonstrations can help convey complex concepts, engage the audience, and reinforce key points.

 Radio Recording – Dictaphone – Meetings – Rumour

Radio Recording:

Radio recording refers to the process of capturing audio content from a radio broadcast for the purpose of later playback or analysis. This can be done using specialized radio recording equipment or software, and the recorded audio can be stored on various media, including tapes, CDs, or digital files. Radio recording is often used for educational or research purposes, as well as for entertainment.


A dictaphone is a device used for recording audio content, typically for transcription or for later reference. Dictaphones are commonly used in professional settings, such as in legal or medical offices, where accurate recording of information is critical. Modern dictaphones are often digital and store the recorded audio on memory cards or internal memory, allowing for easy transfer of the recorded content to a computer for analysis or transcription.


Meetings are a common form of oral communication that bring together individuals or groups of people for the purpose of discussing and exchanging information. Meetings can be formal or informal and may be held in-person or via remote means, such as video conferencing. The use of audio recording equipment, such as dictaphones, can be beneficial in meetings as it allows for accurate capture and later reference of the discussions and decisions made during the meeting.


A rumour is unverified information or gossip that is spread by word of mouth or through various forms of media, such as social media or email. Rumours can be based on truth or be completely false and are often spread quickly, making them difficult to control or contain. In oral communication, rumours can be particularly damaging as they can be spread rapidly and cause harm to individuals or organizations. To mitigate the impact of rumours, it is important to promote accurate and reliable communication, as well as to encourage critical thinking and fact-checking before spreading information.

Demonstration and Dramatisation


A demonstration is a form of oral communication that uses practical examples or visual aids to illustrate a concept or idea. Demonstrations are often used in educational or training settings to make complex ideas easier to understand and to reinforce key messages. Demonstrations can take many forms, including hands-on activities, simulations, or the use of physical models or diagrams.

Benefits of using demonstrations in oral communication include:

  1. Clarity: Demonstrations can help to clarify complex ideas and make them easier for the audience to understand.
  2. Engagement: Demonstrations can engage the audience and keep their attention focused on the topic at hand.
  3. Reinforcement: Demonstrations can reinforce the key messages of the oral communication and help the audience retain the information better.
  4. Interactivity: Demonstrations can encourage interaction and participation from the audience, making the communication process more dynamic and engaging.
  5. Evidence: Demonstrations can provide evidence to support the speaker’s argument or position, making the communication more credible and persuasive.


Dramatization is a form of oral communication that involves acting out a scene or scenario to illustrate a point or concept. Dramatization can be used in a variety of settings, including education, entertainment, or training, and can be an effective tool for engaging the audience and conveying complex ideas.

Benefits of using dramatization in oral communication include:

  1. Emotion: Dramatization can evoke strong emotions in the audience, making the communication more impactful and memorable.
  2. Clarity: Dramatization can help to clarify complex ideas by illustrating them in a concrete and tangible way.
  3. Engagement: Dramatization can engage the audience and keep their attention focused on the topic at hand.
  4. Reinforcement: Dramatization can reinforce the key messages of the oral communication and help the audience retain the information better.
  5. Interactivity: Dramatization can encourage interaction and participation from the audience, making the communication process more dynamic and engaging.

In conclusion, demonstrations and dramatizations are powerful tools in oral communication that can greatly enhance the effectiveness of the communication process. Whether in a classroom, training session, or professional setting, the use of these techniques can help convey complex concepts, engage the audience, and reinforce key messages

Public address system – Grapevine

Public Address System:

A public address (PA) system is a technology used to amplify sound and make it audible to a large audience. PA systems are commonly used in public spaces, such as schools, theaters, and sports arenas, and typically consist of a microphone, amplifier, and speaker system. The use of a PA system in oral communication can be beneficial as it allows the speaker to be heard by a large audience, regardless of the size or acoustics of the space.


The grapevine is a term used to describe informal communication networks that exist within organizations or communities. Grapevine communication is often informal and is not part of the formal communication structure, but it can be an important source of information and feedback. Grapevine communication can be positive or negative and can have a significant impact on attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions within the organization. While grapevine communication can be a valuable source of information, it is important to be aware of the potential for misinformation and to encourage accurate and reliable communication within the organization.

Group Discussion – Oral report – Closed circuit TV

Group Discussion:

A group discussion is a form of oral communication that involves a group of people discussing a specific topic or issue. Group discussions can be structured or unstructured and can take place in a variety of settings, including classrooms, meetings, or conferences. The goal of a group discussion is typically to exchange ideas, perspectives, and information, and to reach a shared understanding or decision.

Benefits of group discussions include:

  1. Collaboration: Group discussions can encourage collaboration and teamwork among participants, allowing them to pool their knowledge and expertise.
  2. Diversity of perspectives: Group discussions can provide a diverse range of perspectives, helping to broaden the scope of the discussion and leading to more informed decisions.
  3. Improved communication skills: Group discussions can help improve communication skills, such as active listening, critical thinking, and persuasive speaking.
  4. Decision-making: Group discussions can lead to more informed and effective decision-making by allowing participants to consider multiple perspectives and viewpoints.

Oral Report:

An oral report is a form of oral communication that involves presenting information or findings to an audience. Oral reports are often used in academic or professional settings to convey research results, to summarize data or information, or to provide updates on a specific project or initiative.

Benefits of oral reports include:

  1. Clarity: Oral reports can help to clarify complex information and make it easier for the audience to understand.
  2. Evidence: Oral reports can provide evidence to support the speaker’s argument or position, making the communication more credible and persuasive.
  3. Engagement: Oral reports can engage the audience and keep their attention focused on the topic at hand.
  4. Reinforcement: Oral reports can reinforce the key messages of the communication and help the audience retain the information better.
  5. Interactivity: Oral reports can encourage interaction and participation from the audience, making the communication process more dynamic and engaging.

Closed Circuit Television (CCTV):

Closed circuit television (CCTV) is a system of video cameras and monitors that are used to observe and monitor a specific area. CCTV systems are commonly used in security and surveillance applications, such as in retail stores, banks, and public transportation systems.

Benefits of using CCTV in oral communication include:

  1. Security: CCTV can provide an added layer of security by allowing for the observation and monitoring of a specific area.
  2. Evidence: CCTV can provide visual evidence of events or incidents, making it useful for investigation purposes.
  3. Remote monitoring: CCTV allows for remote monitoring, making it possible to observe and monitor an area from a distance.
  4. Improved response times: CCTV can help to improve response times in emergency situations by providing real-time information to first responders.
  5. Compliance: CCTV can help organizations comply with laws and regulations, such as those related to privacy and data protection

The art of listening – Principles of good listening

The Art of Listening:

Listening is a critical component of effective communication, yet it is often one of the most undervalued skills. The art of listening involves paying attention to the speaker, understanding the message being conveyed, and responding in a manner that shows empathy and respect. Good listening skills can help build relationships, resolve conflicts, and improve overall communication effectiveness.

Principles of Good Listening:

  1. Attention: Good listeners pay attention to the speaker and avoid distractions. They focus on the message being conveyed and avoid interrupting the speaker.
  2. Understanding: Good listeners strive to understand the speaker’s point of view and the context of the message. They consider the speaker’s perspective and try to put themselves in the speaker’s shoes.
  3. Empathy: Good listeners show empathy and compassion towards the speaker. They listen with an open mind and try to understand the emotions and feelings being expressed.
  4. Active Listening: Good listeners engage in active listening, which involves actively seeking to understand the message being conveyed. They ask questions, provide feedback, and seek clarification when necessary.
  5. Respect: Good listeners show respect for the speaker and their message. They avoid being judgmental and maintain a positive, supportive attitude.
  6. Nonverbal Communication: Good listeners are aware of the role that nonverbal communication plays in the listening process. They pay attention to body language and other nonverbal cues, and use them to enhance their understanding of the message being conveyed.
  7. Avoiding Interruptions: Good listeners avoid interrupting the speaker and allow them to complete their thoughts. They resist the urge to respond immediately and wait until the speaker has finished speaking before responding.

In conclusion, the art of listening is a critical component of effective communication. By following the principles of good listening, individuals can improve their ability to understand and respond to messages in a manner that promotes mutual understanding and respect.