# Unit-4 Introduction to Problem Solving

Regardless of the area of the study, computer science is all about solving problems with computers. The problem that we want to solve can come from any real-world problem or perhaps even from the abstract world. We need to have a standard systematic approach to problem solving through programming in c.

computer programmers are problem solvers. In order to solve a problem on a computer, we must know how to represent the information describing the problem and determine the steps to transform the information from one representation into another.

In this chapter, we will learn problem-solving and steps in problem-solving, basic tools for designing solution as an algorithm Flow chart and Pseudo code etc.

### Problem Solving Through Programming in C

A computer is a very powerful and versatile machine capable of performing a multitude of different tasks, yet it has no intelligence or thinking power.

The Computer performs many tasks exactly in the same manner as it is told to do. This places responsibility on the user to instruct the computer in a correct and precise manner so that the machine is able to perform the required job in a proper way. A wrong or ambiguous instruction may sometimes prove dangerous.

The computer cannot solve the problem on its own, one has to provide step by step solutions of the problem to the computer. In fact, the task of problem-solving is not that of the computer.

It is the programmer who has to write down the solution to the problem in terms of simple operations which the computer can understand and execute.

Problem-solving is a sequential process of analyzing information related to a given situation and generating appropriate response options.

In order to solve a problem with the computer, one has to pass through certain stages or steps. They are as follows:

### Steps to Solve a Problem With the Computer

#### Step 1: Understanding the Problem:

Here we try to understand the problem to be solved in totally. Before with the next stage or step, we should be absolutely sure about the objectives of the given problem.

#### Step 2: Analyzing the Problem:

After understanding thoroughly the problem to be solved, we look at different ways of solving the problem and evaluate each of these methods.

The idea here is to search for an appropriate solution to the problem under consideration. The end result of this stage is a broad overview of the sequence of operations that are to be carried out to solve the given problem.

#### Step 3: Developing the solution:

Here, the overview of the sequence of operations that was the result of the analysis stage is expanded to form a detailed step by step solution to the problem under consideration.

#### Step 4: Coding and Implementation:

The last stage of problem-solving is the conversion of the detailed sequence of operations into a language that the computer can understand. Here, each step is converted to its equivalent instruction or instructions in the computer language that has been chosen for the implantation.

The vehicle for the computer solution to a problem is a set of explicit and unambiguous instructions expressed in a programming language. This set of instruction is called a program with problem solving through programming in C.

A program may also be thought of as an algorithm expressed in a programming language. an algorithm, therefore, corresponds to a solution to a problem that is independent of any programming language.

To obtain the computer solution to a problem once we have the program we usually have to supply the program with input or data. The program then takes this input and manipulates it according to its instructions. Eventually produces an output which represents the computer solution to the problem.

The problem solving is a skill and there are no universal approaches one can take to solving problems. Basically one must explore possible avenues to a solution one by one until she/he comes across the right path to a solution.

In general, as one gains experience in solving problems, one develops one’s own techniques and strategies, though they are often intangible. Problem-solving skills are recognized as an integral component of computer programming.

General Problem solving Techniques

Often it is possible to phrase a problem in terms of one of these strategies and achieve considerable gains in computational efficiency.